Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



   The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG in synbiotic wet Doineh, a traditional Iranian fermented food enriched with different ratios of inulin. Milk and wheat bulgur were cooked in the conventional method and then mixed with LGG strain and different ratios of inulin (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 percent). After 24 h of fermentation at 37ºC, the samples were stored at 4ºC for 21 days. pH, acidity, sensory evaluation, and probiotic culture were measured at 24 h after fermentation and on days 7, 14, and 21, using a pH meter, potentiometric, 5-point hedonic scale, and pour-plate methods, respectively. Protein, fat, solids content, and ash were determined by Kjeldahl, Soxhlet, dry weight at 100–105°C and 550ºC oven methods after 24 h of fermentation. The samples containing inulin showed significantly slower changes in pH and acidity. The viability and survival of LGG increased in the samples with higher amounts of inulin due to its prebiotic effect, and these changes were significant. The 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% inulin models had more acceptable sensory characteristics. Traditional foods and their preparation methods are suitable targets for developing health-oriented products, and functional foods with nutraceutical capabilities can be designed and produced based on them.


  1. Diez-Gutierrez L, San Vicente L, Barron LJR, del Carmen Villaran M, Chavarri M. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and probiotics: Multiple health benefits and their future in the global functional food and nutraceuticals market. Journal of Functional Foods. 2020;64:103669.
  2. Granato D, Barba FJ, Bursać Kovačević D, Lorenzo JM, Cruz AG, Putnik P. Functional foods: Product development, technological trends, efficacy testing, and safety. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2020;11:93-118.
  3. Bahrami S, Noshirvani N. Effect of turnip, pumpkin and bakery yeast on microbial flora and texture of Doineh. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Iran). 2023;19(133):197-209.
  4. Gok I. Functional potential of several Turkish fermented traditional foods: biotic properties, bioactive compounds, and health benefits. Food Reviews International. 2021:1-26.
  5. Gulbandilar A. Hops (Humulus lupulus): A novel ingredient in tarhana. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2021;45(10):e15686.
  6. Fong FLY, Kirjavainen P, Wong VHY, El-Nezami H. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes from healthy donors. Journal of Functional Foods. 2015;13:71-9.
  7. Yadav R, Dey DK, Vij R, Meena S, Kapila R, Kapila S. Evaluation of anti-diabetic attributes of Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5957, Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5897 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898 in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2018;125:454-62.
  8. Darby TM, Naudin CR, Luo L, Jones RM. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-induced expression of leptin in the intestine orchestrates epithelial cell proliferation. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020;9(4):627-39.
  9. Sun J, Chen H, Qiao Y, Liu G, Leng C, Zhang Y, et al. The nutrient requirements of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and their application to fermented milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(7):5971-8.
  10. Kocková M, Valík Ľ. Development of new cereal-, pseudocereal-, and cereal-leguminous-based probiotic foods. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2014;32(4):391-7.
  11. Ozturkoglu-Budak S, Akal HC, Buran İ, Yetişemiyen A. Effect of inulin polymerization degree on various properties of synbiotic fermented milk including Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(8):6901-13.
  12. Kolida S, Gibson GR. Prebiotic capacity of inulin-type fructans. The Journal of Nutrition. 2007;137(11):2503S-6S.
  13. Chaudhary A, Bhalla S, Patiyal S, Raghava GPS, Sahni G. FermFooDb: A database of bioactive peptides derived from fermented foods. Heliyon. 2021;7(4):e06668.
  14. El-Sayed M, Awad S. Milk bioactive peptides: antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic activities. Advances in Biochemistry. 2019;7(1):22-33.
  15. Almeida KEd, Tamime AY, Oliveira MNd. Influence of total solids contents of milk whey on the acidifying profile and viability of various lactic acid bacteria. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2009;42(2):672-8.
  16. De Souza Oliveira RP, Perego P, Converti A, De Oliveira MN. The effect of inulin as a prebiotic on the production of probiotic fibre‐enriched fermented milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2009;62(2):195-203.
  17. Guven M, Yasar K, Karaca O, Hayaloglu A. The effect of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of set‐type low‐fat yogurt manufacture. International journal of dairy Technology. 2005;58(3):180-4.
  18. Khorasany S, Shahdadi F. Improvements in survival of probiotic bacteria, rheology and sensory characteristics of yogurts during storage. Nutrition and Food Sciences Research. 2021;8(1):35-43.
  19. Salaün F, Mietton B, Gaucheron F. Buffering capacity of dairy products. International Dairy Journal. 2005;15(2):95-109.
  20. Mennah-Govela YA, Cai H, Chu J, Kim K, Maborang M-K, Sun W, et al. Buffering capacity of commercially available foods is influenced by composition and initial properties in the context of gastric digestion. Food & Function. 2020;11(3):2255-67.
  21. Tamime AY, Saarela M, Sondergaard AK, Mistry V, Shah N. Production and maintenance of viability of probiotic microorganisms in dairy products. Probiotic Dairy Products. 2005;3:39-63.
  22. Dimitrijev-Dwyer M, He L, James M, Nelson A, Wang L, Middelberg AP. The effects of acid hydrolysis on protein biosurfactant molecular, interfacial, and foam properties: pH responsive protein hydrolysates. Soft Matter. 2012;8(19):5131-9.
  23. Shewry PR. Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2009;60(6):1537-53.
  24. Gobbetti M, Cagno RD, De Angelis M. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2010;50(8):716-27.
  25. Zhang H, Claver IP, Li Q, Zhu K, Peng W, Zhou H. Structural modification of wheat gluten by dry heat-enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2012;50(1):53-8.
  26. Pinto G, Picariello G, Addeo F, Chianese L, Scaloni A, Caira S. Proteolysis and process-induced modifications in synbiotic yogurt investigated by peptidomics and phosphopeptidomics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2020;68(32):8744-54.
  27. Lucey J, Gorry C, Fox P. Acid-base buffering properties of heated milk. Milchwissenschaft (Germany). 1993.
  28. Mortazavian A, Ehsani M, Mousavi S, Reinheimer JA, Emamdjomeh Z, Sohrabvandi S, et al. Preliminary investigation of the combined effect of heat treatment and incubation temperature on the viability of the probiotic micro‐organisms in freshly made yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2006;59(1):8-11.
  29. Cloetens L, Broekaert WF, Delaedt Y, Ollevier F, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, et al. Tolerance of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides and their prebiotic activity in healthy subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010;103(5):703-13.
  30. Helland MH, Wicklund T, Narvhus JA. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria in milk-and water-based cereal puddings. International Dairy Journal. 2004;14(11):957-65.
  31. HabibiNajafi MB, Fatemizadeh SS, Tavakoli M. Effect of fat percentage and prebiotic composition on proteolysis, ace-inhibitory and antioxidant activity of probiotic yogurt. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering. 2017;11(8):622-8.