Document Type : Original Article
Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
In recent years, there is a growing demand for healthy and safe food. In this regard, kombucha products have promising future due to their contents of bioactive compounds that exhibit health-promoting properties. Kombucha yogurt is a novel product with unique quality characteristics. So, in this study, the kombucha extract (KE), 5, 10, and 15% (v/v), was applied as a non-conventional starter for yogurt production, and the effect of kombucha on pH and titratable acidity of yogurt during incubation was investigated. Also, some physicochemical properties and overall acceptability of yogurt samples were determined during 21 days of storage at 8ºC. For producing yogurt samples, the amounts of 5, 10, and 15 % (V/V) of concentrate of kombucha layer grown up on black tea, without yogurt starter bacteria, were inoculated to the milk containing 2.2% fat. Meanwhile, the yogurt starter was applied for producing the control sample. The results showed that by increasing the concentration of KE, a slight increase in pH (4-10%) and a decrease (12-35%) in acidity was observed compared to the control sample (p<0.05); syneresis increased and viscosity decreased (p<0.05); the vitamin C (92-200%) and ethanol (0-44%) levels increased (p<0.05) and the overall acceptability decreased (p<0.05) during 21 days of cold storage. The increase of the kombucha concentration in all samples elongated the fermentation period (p<0.05). The best physicochemical and sensory properties were observed in the sample containing 5% KE.
- Jayabalan R, Malbasa R, Loncar E, Yasmina S, Vitas M, Sathishkumar MA. Review on kombucha tea-microbiology, composition, fermentation, beneficial effects, toxicity, and tea fungus. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2014;13,538-50.
- Vukic V, Kanuric K, Milanovic S, Ilicic M, Hrnjez D, Ranogajec M. Correlation of the microstructure with viscosity and textural properties during milk fermentation by kombucha inoculum. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2014:45,89-98.
- Vina I, Semjonovs P, Linde R, Patetko A. Glucuronic acid containing fermented functional beverages produced by natural yeasts and bacteria associations. International Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies. 2013;14 (1),17-25.
- Vitas J, Malbasa, R, Grahovac J, Loncar E. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and wintory savory. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 2013; 19:129-39.
- Malbasa R, Minic S, Loncar E, Kolarov LJ. Influence of inoculum of kombucha on quality of fermented dairy products. Prehrambena Industrija. 2008;19,43-46.
- Teoh A, Heard G, Cox J. Yeast ecology of kombucha fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004; 95,119-26.
- Dufresne C, Farnworth E. Tea, Kombucha, and health: a review. Food Research International. 2000;3,409-21.
- Doudi M, Hooshmandi Z, Saedi S, Setorki M. Effects of kombucha tea on side effects of high cholesterol diet in rabbits. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 2020;6,123-32.
- Thummala S, Ramachandran A, Jagadeesan A, Uppala S. Down regulation of signaling molecules involved in angiogenesis of prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by kombucha (lyophilized). Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. 2013;3,53–8.
- Semantee B. Ratan G. & Parames C. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;60,328-40.
- Aloulou A, Hamden K, Elloumi D, Ali MB, Hargafi K, Jaouadi B, Ayadi F, Elfeki A, Ammar E. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12,12-63.
- Houda B, Amina B, Emna A. Antimicrobial effect of kombucha analogues. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2012;47,71-7.
- Milanovic S, Kanuric K, Vukic V, Hrnjez D, Ilicic M, Ranogajec M, Milanovic M. Physicochemical and textural properties of kombucha fermented dairy products. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11,2320-27.
- Markov S, Jerinerinic V, Cvetkovic D, Loncar E, Malbasa R. Kombucha-functional beverage: composition, characteristics and process of biotransformation. Hemijska Industrija. 2003;57,456-62.
- Hrnjez D, Vastag Z, Milanovic S, Vukic V, Ilicic M, Popovic LJ. The biological activity of fermented dairy products obtained by kombucha and conventional starter cultures during storage. Journal of Functional Foods. 2014;10,336-45.
- Malbasa L, Jevric L, Loncar E, Vitas J, Podunavac-Kuzmanovic S, Milanovic S, Kovacevic S. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;52,5968-74.
- Malbasa R, Vitas J, Loncar E, Milanovic S. Physical and textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2012;43:51-9.
- Kanuric K, Hrnjez D, Ranogajec M, Milanovic S, Ilicic M, Vukic V, Milanovic M. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2011;42,63-70.
- Milanovic S, Loncar E, Duric M, Malbasa R, Tekic M, Ilicic M, Durakovic K. Low energy kombucha fermented milk-based beverages, Acta Periodica Technologica. 2008;39,37-46.
- Leal JM, Suarez LV, Jayabalan R, Oros JH, Escalante-Aburto A. A review on health benefits of kombucha nutritional compounds and metabolites. CyTA - Journal of Food. 2018;16(1),390-9.
- Vitas J, Malbaša R, Jokić A, Lončar E, Milanović S. ANN and RSM modelling of antioxidant characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages with peppermint. Mljekarstvo. 2018;68,116-25.
- Ilicic M, Kanuric K, Milanovic S, Loncar E, Djuric M, Malbasa R. Lactose fermentation by kombucha-a process to obtain new milk-based beverages. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 2012;17,171-7.
- Ebrahimi Pure A, Ebrahimi Pure M. Antioxidant, antibacterial and color analysis of garlic fermented in kombucha and red grape vinegar. Applied Food Biotechnology. 2016;3(4),246-52.
- Ebrahimi Pure A, Ebrahimi Pure M. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of kombucha beverages prepared using banana peel, common nettles and black tea Infusions. Applied Food Biotechnology. 2016;3(2),125-30.
- Milanovic S, licic M, Durakovic K, Vukic V. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2009;40,63-69.
- Malbasa R, Milanovic S, Loncar E, Djuric M, Caric M, Ilicic M, Kolarov LJ. Milk-based beverages obtained by kombucha application. Food Chemistry. 2009;112,178-84.
- Malbasa R, Loncar E, Milanovic S, Kolarov LJ. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculums for milk fermentation. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2009;40,47-52.
- Markov S, Cvetkovic D, Velicanski Aleksandra S. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and kombucha fermentation. Archives of Biological Sciences. 2012;64,1439-47.
- Nguyen KK, Dong NT, Nguyen HT, Le PH. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha. Springerplus. 2015;4,91.
- Ilicic MD, Milanovic SD, Kanuric KG, Vukic VR, Popovis SS, Vukic DV. Content of sugar, organic acids and ethanol in fermented milk beverages obtained with different types of kombucha inoculum. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2017;48,109-16.
- Suciati F, Nurliyani F, Indratiningsih W. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of fermented whey using kombucha inoculum. Buletin Peternakan. 2019;43,52-7.
- Nurliyani F, Indratiningsih W, Sukarno AS, Suciati F. Characteristics of fermented goat milk using combination of kombucha and Lactobacillus casei IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 387 012077. 2019.
- Abdel-Salam A B. & Galal G F. Biological activity and physicochemical quality of different types of kombucha yoghurt vs traditional yoghurt during storage. Bioscience Research. 2018;15,2816-27.
- Ilicic MD, Bjekic MR, Milanovic SD, Vukic VR, Kanuric KG, Vukic DV. Composition characteristics of fresh cheese made with kombucha inoculum and traditional starter. Acta Periodica Technologica. 2019;50,86-92.
- Kanuric KG, Milanovic SD, Ikonic BB. Loncar ES, Ilicic MD, Vukic V R, Vukic DV. Kinetics of lactose fermentation in milk with kombucha starter. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2018;26,1229-34.
- Tomovska J, Gjorgievski N, Makarijoski B. Examination of pH, Titratable Acidity and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Milk. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A. 2016;6,326-33.
- Tamim A, Barrantes E, Sword A. The effects of starch-based fat substitutes on the microstructure of set-style yogurt made from reconstituted skimmed milk powder. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology. 1996;49,1-10.
- Cinbas A, Yazici Effect of the addition of blueberries on selected physicochemical and sensory properties of yoghurts. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2008;46,434-41.
- Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Ethanol in beer, Gas chromatographic method. AOAC 984. 14 4th ed. 1998.
- Ilicic M, Milanovic S, Hrnjez D, Vukic K, Ranogajrc M. The influence of milk fat content on physicochemical characteristics and microstructure of kombucha fermented milk beverage. Proceedings of the International Food Congress-Novel Approaches in Food Industry. 2011;2,772-7.
- Jeong CH, Ryn H, Zhang T, Lee CH, Seo HG, Han SG. Green tea powder supplementation enhances fermentation and antioxidant activity of set-type yogurt. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2018;27,1419-27.
- Cho WY, Kim DH, Lee HJ, Yeon SJ, Lee CH. Quality characteristic and antioxidant activity of yogurt containing olive leaf hot water extract. CyTA – Journal of Food. 2020;18,43-50.
- Iličić M, Milanović S, Carić M, Vukić V, Kanurić K, Ranogajec M, Hrnjez D. The effect of transglutaminase on rheology and texture of fermented milk products. Journal of Texture Study. 2013;44,160-8.
- Tarakci Z, Kucukoner E. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of some fruit-flavored yoghurt. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2003;41,177-81.
- Zekai T, Erdogan K. Physical, Chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of some fruit-flavored yoghurt. YYU Vet Fak Derg. 2003; 14(2),10-14.
- Lucey J. Cultured dairy products: An overview of their gelation and texture properties. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2004;57, 77-84.
- Shakeri M, Shahidi F, Mortazavi A, Nassiri Mahallati M, Beiraghi Toosi S. Evaluation of butter milk effect on physical, microbial and organoleptical properties of probiotic yoghurt. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2006; 20,185-95.
- Tamim A. Structure of dairy products. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Cambridge England, p. 288. 2007.
- Tamim A, Robinson R. Yogurt Science and Technology. 2th e, Woodhead publishing limited, Cambridge UK, p. 431. 1999.
- Al-Kadamany E, Khattar M, Haddad T, Toufeili I. Estimation of shelf life of concentrated yoghurt by monitoring selected microbiological and physiological changes during storage. Journal of Dairy Science. 2003;85, 1023-30.
- Torre L, Tamim A, Muir D. Rheology and sensory profiling of set-type fermented milks made with different commercial probiotic and yoghurt starter cultures. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2003;56,163-70.
- Malbasa R, Vitas J, Loncar E, Grahovac J, Milanovic S. Optimization of the antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products. Czech Journal of Food Science. 2014;32,477-84.
- Malbasa R, Loncar E, Kolarov L. Determination of vitamin C in kombucha-based fermented milk products. Prehrambena Industrija. 2009;20:31-4.
- Belloso-Morales G, Hernandez-Sanchez H. (2003): Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a tea fungus fermentation. Revista Latinoamericana Microbiologia. 2003;45(1-2),5-11.