Document Type : Original Article
Department of Food Science and Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of NaCl, bile salts, and their combinations on the viability of Lactobacillus casei in probiotic yogurt. For this purpose, the antibacterial activity of NaCl and bile salts was investigated via the microdilution technique by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against L. casei. Further, the stress effects of 50% MIC on NaCl and bile salts on the L. casei were examined by comparing the stress treatments with the control in terms of the L. casei population, pH, acidity, and syneresis percentage in probiotic yogurt during storage in the refrigerator for 28 days. According to the results, the L. casei population and pH decreased in all the treatments during the storage time, such that the intensity of the decrease in the control treatment was lesser than in other stress treatments (p<0.05). The acidity and percentage of syneresis during the storage time increased for all the treatments, with the increase being less in control than in the other stress treatments (p<0.05). The control scored the highest in the sensory evaluation (p<0.05). In conclusion, applying stresses below the MIC had a negative effect on the survival of L. casei in the probiotic yogurt until the end of 28 days and the outcome was not as expected.
- Zendeboodi F, Khorshidian N, Mortazavian AM, da Cruz AG. Probiotic: conceptualization from a new approach. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2020;32,103-120.
- Roobab U, Batool Z, Manzoor M F, Shabbir M A, Khan M R, Aadil R M, Visualization of food probiotics with technologies to improve their formulation for health benefits and future perspectives. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2020;32,17-28.
- Al-Okbi SY, Mohamed DA, Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis. Grasas Y Aceites International Journal of Fats and Oils. 2012;63(4),394-402.
- Lucatto JN, Silva Buzanello RA, Mendonça SNTG, Lazarotto TC, Sanchez JL, Bona E, et al. Performance of different microbial cultures in potentially probiotic and prebiotic yogurts from cow and goat milks. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2020;73(1),144-56.
- Fontana A, Zacconi C, Morelli L, Genetic signatures of dairy Lactobacilluscasei Group. Frontiers in microbiology. 2018; 9, 2611.
- Balthazar CF, Silva HL, Esmerino EA, Rocha RS, Moraes J, Carmo MA, et al. The addition of inulin and Lactobacillus casei 01 in sheep milk ice cream. Food Chemistry. 2018;246,464-72.
- Garcia C, Bautista L, Rendueles M, and Diaz M, A new synbiotic dairy food containing lactobionic acid and Lactobacillus casei. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2019; 72(1), 47-56.
- Alizadeh Khaledabad M, Ghasempour Z, Moghaddas Kia, E, Rezazad Bari M. Probiotic yogurt functionalised with microalgae and Zedo gum: chemical, microbiological, rheological and sensory characteristics. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2020;73(1),67-75.
- Azizkhani M, Parsaeimehr M. Probiotics survival, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of yogurt flavored with herbal essential oils. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25(3),921-7.
- El-Shafei K, Tawfik NF, Dabiza NMA, Sharaf OM, Effat. In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of potentially probiotic Lactobacilli. Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11),357-67.
- Sahadeva RPK, Leong SF, Chua KH, Tan CH, Chan HY, Tong EV, et al. Survival of commercial probiotic strains to pH and bile. International Food Research Journal. 2011;18(4),1515-22.
- Mortazavian AM, Ehsani M R, Mousavi S M, Rezaei K, Sohrabvandi S, Reinheimer J A, Effect of refrigerated storage temperature on the viability of probiotic microorganisms in yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2007;60(2),123-7.
- Capela P, Hay T K C, Shah N P, Effect of cryoprotectants, prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yogurt and freeze-dried yogurt. Food Research International. 2006;39(2),203-11.
- Maragkoudakis PA, Zoumpopoulou G, Miaris C, Kalantzopoulos G, Pot B, Tsakalidou, E. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products. International Dairy Journal. 2006;16(3),189-99.
- Yildiz E, Ozcan T. Functional and textural properties of vegetable- fibre enriched yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2020;72, 199-207.
- Wacher-Rodarte C, Galvan MV, Farres A, Gallardo F, Marshall VM Garcia-Garibay, M. Yogurt production from reconstituted skim milk powders using different polymer and non-polymer forming starter cultures. Journal of Dairy Research. 1993;60(2),247-254.
- Shahdadi F, Mirzaie H, Kashaninejad M, Khomeiri M, Ziaiifar AM Akbarian A. Effects of various essential oils on chemical and sensory characteristics and activity of probiotic bacteria in drinking yogurt. Agricultural Communications. 2015;3(1),16-21.
- Calsamiglia S, Busquet M, Cardozo PW, Castillejos L, Ferret A. Invited review: essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007;90(6),2580-95.
- Singh G, Kapoor I P S, Singh P, Effect of volatile oil and oleoresin of anise on the shelf life of yogurt. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2011;35(6),778-83.
- Yangilar F, Yildiz PO. Effects of using combined essential oils on quality parameters of bio‐yogurt. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2018;42 (1),e13332.
- Kailasapathy K, Survival of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria and their effect on the sensory properties of yogurt. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2006;39(10),1221-7.
- Sarabi-Jamab M, Niazmand R. Effect of essential oil of Mentha piperita and Ziziphora clinopodioides on Lactobacillus acidophilus activity as bioyogurt starter culture. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 2009;6(2),129-31.
- Sahadeva RPK, Leong SF, Chua KH, Tan CH, Chan HY, Tong EV, Wong SYW Chan HK, Survival of commercial probiotic strains to pH and bile. Int. Food Research International. 2011;18(4),1515-22.
- Taranto MP, Perez-Martinez G, de Valdez GF. Effect of bile acid on the cell membrane functionality of lactic acid bacteria for oral administration. Research in Microbiology. 2006;157(8),720-5.
- Fortin MH, Champagne CP, St-Gelais D, Britten M, Fustier P, Lacroix M. Effect of time of inoculation, starter addition, oxygen level and salting on the viability of probiotic cultures during Cheddar cheese production. International Dairy Journal. 2011;21(2),75-82.
- Hekmat S, Soltani H, Reid G. Growth and survival of Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in yogurt for use as a functional food. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2009;10(2),293-6.
- Mahmoudi R. Improvement the hygienic quality and organoleptic properties of bioyogurt using Cuminum cyminum essential oil. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies. 2013;19(4),405-12.
- Vinderola C, Mocchiutti P, Reinheimer J. Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria used for fermented dairy products. Journal of Dairy Science. 2002;85,721-9.
- Mahmoudi R, Zare P, Hassanzadeh P, Nosratpour S. Effect of Teucrium polium essential oil on the physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2014;38(3),880-8.
- Ramasubramanian L, Restuccia C, Deeth HC. Effect of calcium on the physical properties of stirred probiotic yogurt. Journal of Dairy Science. 2008;91(11),4164-75.
- Akgun A, Yazici F, Gulec HA, The combined effect of probiotic cultures and incubation final pH on the quality of buffalo milk yogurt during cold storage. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;6(2),492-502.
- Everett DW. McLeod RE, Interactions of polysaccharide stabilisers with casein aggregates in stirred skim-milk yogurt. International Dairy Journal. 2005;15(11),1175-83.
- Ayar A, Gurlin E, Production and sensory, textural, physico-chemical properties of flavored spreadable yogurt. Life Science Journal. 2014; 11(4),58-65.
- Grom L, Rocha R, Balthazar C, Guimarães J, Coutinho N, Barros C, et al. Postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects: Which probiotic dairy food is more adequate. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(2),1110-9.