Document Type : Short Communication


1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Eslamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamshahr, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran


Alzheimer's disease is an age-related ailment that affects more and more people every day. It is a type of amnesia with brain dysfunction that gradually degrades the patient's mental abilities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance training with royal jelly consumption on dopamine in the hippocampus tissue of Alzheimer's rats treated with trimethyltin. In this experimental study, 30 rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg/kg trimethyltin (TMT) chloride and after ensuring Alzheimer's disease were divided into groups of 6 subjects: control, training, royal jelly consumption, and training with royal jelly consumption. In order to investigate the effects of Alzheimer's induction on dopamine levels, 6 rats were included in the healthy control group. The training groups ran on the treadmill for eight weeks, five sessions a week, and 60 minutes each session. The royal jelly consumption groups received 100 mg/kg royal jelly per day peritoneally for eight weeks. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s mean comparison tests were used to analyze the findings (p≤0.05). Alzheimer's induction with trimethyltin toxin had a significant effect on reducing dopamine gene expression levels (p=0.04); royal jelly, training, and training with royal jelly consumption had a significant effect on increasing dopamine gene expression levels (p=0.001). Also, training and training with royal jelly consumption had a greater effect on increasing dopamine gene expression levels than royal jelly consumption (p=0.001). Although training and royal jelly consumption improve dopamine gene expression levels in the hippocampus tissue of rats with Alzheimer's disease, the effects of training combined with royal jelly consumption appear to be greater than those of royal jelly consumption alone.


  1. Avila J, Llorens-Martín M, Pallas-Bazarra N, Bolós M, Perea JR, Rodríguez-Matellán A, et al. Cognitive decline in neuronal aging and Alzheimer's disease: role of NMDA receptors and associated proteins. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017;11:626.
  2. García-Mesa Y, López-Ramos JC, Giménez-Llort L, Revilla S, Guerra R, Gruart A, et al. Physical exercise protects against Alzheimer's disease in 3xTg-AD mice. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2011;24(3):421-54.
  3. Thal DR, Walter J, Saido TC, Fändrich M. Neuropathology and biochemistry of Aβ and its aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathologica. 2015;129(2):167-82.
  4. Teixeira AM, Trevizol F, Colpo G, Garcia SC, Charão M, Pereira RP, et al. Influence of chronic exercise on reserpine-induced oxidative stress in rats: behavioral and antioxidant evaluations. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2008;88(4):465-72.
  5. Meamar R, Dehghani L, Ghasemi M, Saadatnia M, Basiri K, Faradonbeh NA, et al. Enalapril protects endothelial cells against induced apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2013;18(Suppl 1):S1.
  6. Capucho PHFV, Brucki SMD. Judgment in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Neuropsychologia. 2011;5(4):297-302.
  7. Kolb B, Whishaw IQ. Fundamentals of human neuropsychology: Macmillan; 2009.
  8. Sun ZP, Gong L, Huang SH, Geng Z, Cheng L, Chen ZY. Intracellular trafficking and secretion of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor in neurosecretory cells. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2011;117(1):121-32.
  9. Albertazzi P. Noradrenergic and serotonergic modulation to treat vasomotor symptoms. British Menopause Society Journal. 2006;12(1):7-11.
  10. Franzoni F, Federighi G, Fusi J, Cerri E, Banducci R, Petrocchi A, et al. Physical exercise improves total antioxidant capacity and gene expression in rat hippocampal tissue. Archives Italiennes de Biologie. 2017;155(1/2):1-10.
  11. Hattori N, Nomoto H, Fukumitsu H, Mishima S, Furukawa S. Royal jelly-induced neurite outgrowth from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells requires integrin signal independent of activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases. Biomedical Research. 2007;28(3):139-46.
  12. Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH. Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: a comprehensive review of their biological actions and health benefits. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017;2017.
  13. Zamani Z, Reisi P, Alaei H, Pilehvarian AA. Effect of royal jelly on spatial learning and memory in rat model of streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Advanced Biomedical Research. 2012;1.
  14. Amirshahi T, Nejati V, Najafi G. Biochemical and histological evaluation of protective effect of royal jelly on pancreas-induced oxidative stress in male rat pancreas. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2013;23(107):107-15.
  15. Yu F, Bronas UG, Konety S, Nelson NW, Dysken M, Jack C, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer’s disease: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (The FIT-AD trial). Trials. 2014;15(1):394.
  16. Osali A, Mostafavi H, Moaseri F. The Effect of Twelve-Week Aerobic Exercise on IL-6 level and depression in 50-65 Years Old Women with Syndrome Metabolic. Majallah-i pizishki-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki va Khadamat-i Bihdashti-i Darmani-i Tabriz. 2018;40(3):26-33.
  17. Agarwal M, Narayan J, Sharma P, Singh S, Tiwari S. Acute effect of uphill and downhill treadmill walk on cardiovascular response and perceived exertion in young sedentary individual. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health. 2017;6(7):1133-9.
  18. Zhao H, Cheng L, Du X, Hou Y, Liu Y, Cui Z, et al. Transplantation of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor transduced BMSCs in contusion spinal cord injury of rats: promotion of nerve regeneration by alleviating neuroinflammation. Molecular Neurobiology. 2016;53(1):187-99.
  19. Udeochu JC, Shea JM, Villeda SA. Microglia communication: Parallels between aging and Alzheimer's disease. Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. 2016;7(2):114-25.
  20. Pyrzanowska J, Piechal A, Blecharz-Klin K, Joniec-Maciejak I, Graikou K, Chinou I, et al. Long-term administration of Greek Royal Jelly improves spatial memory and influences the concentration of brain neurotransmitters in naturally aged Wistar male rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;155(1):343-51.
  21. Chen D, Liu F, Wan J-B, Lai C-Q, Shen L-r. Effect of major royal jelly proteins on spatial memory in aged rats: Metabolomics analysis in urine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(15):3151-9.
  22. Tapia‐Rojas C, Aranguiz F, Varela‐Nallar L, Inestrosa NC. Voluntary running attenuates memory loss, decreases neuropathological changes and induces neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Brain Pathology. 2016;26(1):62-74.
  23. Rammes G, Mattusch C, Wulff M, Seeser F, Kreuzer M, Zhu K, et al. Involvement of GluN2B subunit containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mediating the acute and chronic synaptotoxic effects of oligomeric amyloid-beta (Aβ) in murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuropharmacology. 2017;123:100-15.
  24. O'dell SJ, Galvez BA, Ball AJ, Marshall JF. Running wheel exercise ameliorates methamphetamine‐induced damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals. Synapse. 2012;66(1):71-80.
  25. Melancon MO, Lorrain D, Dionne IJ. Exercise increases tryptophan availability to the brain in older men age 57-70 years. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012;44(5).
  26. Chavanelle V, Sirvent P, Ennequin G, Caillaud K, Montaurier C, Morio B, et al. Comparison of oxygen consumption in rats during uphill (concentric) and downhill (eccentric) treadmill exercise tests. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014;13(3):689.
  27. Jeon YK, Ha CH. The effect of exercise intensity on brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory in adolescents. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2017;22(1):27.