Document Type : Original Article
Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Pishva-Varamin, Iran
Vitamin D is a significant nutrient in a human’s diet and its deficiency has become a noticeable problem in the world. This study tried to evaluate the effective factors in preserving vitamin D in dried mushrooms using sunlight and ultraviolet light (UV-C). The effect of irradiation on vitamin D2 and D3 in Agaricus bisporus mushroom was investigated. In this study, mushrooms were cut (in 5 mm) and dried in two ways of hot air and freeze-drying at 60 ℃ for 60min and -50 ℃ for 24 h respectively, then powdered and after that, the powders were exposed to the sunlight and UV for 5, 15 and 30 min and finally the amount of vitamin D was measured by HPLC spectrometer. The highest vitamin D2 content was observed in a mushroom powder dried by freeze dryer and exposed to sunlight for 5 min and also the one which was irradiated with UV for 30 min. The highest vitamin D3 content was observed in a mushroom powder dried by the hot dryer and exposed to sunlight for 30 min and the mushroom powder dried by freeze dryer and then irradiated with UV for 30 min. Applying ultraviolet light and sunlight in dried mushrooms increased vitamin D levels. The results of this study showed that the drying methods of mushroom were effective in maintaining and increasing the amount of vitamin D3 in the foodstuff.
- Mellanby E.1989. An experimental investigation on rickets. Nutrition, 5(2): 81-86. 15. Nargesi, A. A., Heidari, B., Esteghamati, S., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Sheikhbahaei, S., Pajouhi, A. at al. 2016. Contribution of vitamin D deficiency to the risk of coronary heart disease in subjects with essential hypertension. Atherosclerosis, 244: 165-171.
- Mirzamani S. Meat or mushroom, which one has a higher nutritional value? Available at: http://health.ajaaums.ac.ir.
- Vidailhet M, Mallet E, Bocquet A, Bresson JL, Briend A, Chouraqui JP. et al. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. Archives of Pediatric. 2012;19(3): 316-328.
- Wang F, Ge T, Gao Q, Hu L, Yu J, Liu Y. The distribution of biologically effective UV spectral irradiances received on a manikin face that cause erythema and skin cancer. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2014;140: 205-214.
- Bernas E, Jaworska G. Vitamins profile as an indicator of the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2016; 49: 1-8.
- Keegan RJH, Lu Z, Bogusz JM, Williams, JE, Holick MF. (2013). Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2013;5:1, 165-176.
- Stawinska A, Fornal E, Radzki W, Skrzypczak K, Zalewska-korona M, Michalak-Majewska M, Parfieniuk E, Stachniuk A. Study on Vitamin D2 stability in dried Mushrooms during drying and storage. Food Chemistry. 2016;199:203-209.
- Hock M, Beckmann M, Hofmann RR, Bruelheide H, Erfmeier A. Effects of UV-B radiation on germination characteristics in invasive plants in New Zealand. NeoBiota. 2015;26: 21-37.
- Jasinghe VJ, Perera CO. Ultraviolet irradiation: The generator of Vitamin D2 in button mushroom. Food Chemistry. 2006;96:638-643.
- Jasinghe VJ, Perera CO. Distribution of ergosterol in different tissues of mushrooms and its effect on the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 by UV irradiation. Food Chemistry. 2005; 92(3): 541-546.
- INSO. (2016). Determination of the Moisture content. Standard NO. 672, 1st. Revision. Iranian National Standardization Organization, Tehran.
- INSO. (1979). Determination of total ash. Standard NO. 1197, 1st. Revision. Iranian National Standardization Organization, Tehran.
- ISIRI. (2009). Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and molds. Standard NO. 10899-1, 1st. Edition. Iranian National Standardization Organization, Tehran.
- ISIRI. (1992). Determination of Vitamin D by high performance liquid chromatography-Measurement of Cholecalciferol (D3) or Ergocalciferol (D2). Standard NO. 13579, 1st. Edition. Institute of standard and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran.
- Huang SJ, Lin CP, Tsai SY. Vitamin D2 content and antioxidant properties of fruit body and mycelia of button mushrooms by UV-B irradiation. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2015;42: 38-45.
- Kalaras MD, Beelman RB, Elias RJ. Effect of postharvest pulsed UV light treatment of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on vitamin D2 content and quality attributes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012;60 (1):220-225.
- Mau JL, Chen PR, Yang JH. Ultraviolet irradiation increased vitamin D2 content in button mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1998;46(12):5269-5272.