Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Food Science and Engineering, Mahalat branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahalat, Iran

2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Department of Food Science and Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran


In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of dried and powdered of Zataria multiflora and Salvia leriifolia were prepared. After producing the treatments, the moisture, pH, ash, protein and fat content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, color parameters, and sensory evaluation in sausage samples during 45 days of storage were studied. The lowest and highest pH value was related to treatment with the mixture extracts (0.25%) and Z. multiflora extract (1.5%), respectively. The lowest and highest protein content was related to 1% S. leriifolia and 2% Z. multiflora extract, respectively. Gradually, the fat content in the control sample and all treatments has declined, also, the protein and ash content in treatments has decreased and increased respectively. Over time and with increasing the extracts concentration, L*, a* and b* values in all treatments decreased, increased and decreased respectively. S. leriifolia extract has a more significant effect on the DPPH test in comparison with Z. multiflora extract. Two herbal extracts had a significant effect on the sensorial characteristics of all treatments. It can be said that, in terms of color parameters and free radical scavenging activity, the treatments with S. leriifolia extracts were better than control and treatments containing Z. multiflora extracts, while, the physicochemical and sensorial properties of recent treatments were better than S. leriifolia extracts and control.


  1. Devatkal SK, Thorat P, Manjunatha M. Effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on quality aspects of ground goat meat and nuggets. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;51(10):2685- 91.
  2. Shah MA, Bosco SJD, Mir S A. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. Meat Science. 2014; 98: 21-33.
  3. Choobkar N, Akhondzadeh A, Sari AA, Gandomi H, Emami A.M. Effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss and nissin on the control of the quality of silver carp fillets, hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2012;11(9):205-15.
  4. Sahari MA, Asgari S. Effects of plants bioactive compounds on foods microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;1(3):52-61.
  5. Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods (a review). International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004;94(3):223-53.
  6. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR, Imanshahidi M, Faziy bazzaz B.S. Review of the pharmacological and toxicological effects of Salvia lerrrfolia. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2009;12(1):1-8.
  7. Javaid MM, Florentine S, Ali HH, Weller S. Effect of environmental factors on the germination and emergence of Salvia verbenaca L. cultivars (verbenaca and vernalis): An invasive species in semi-arid and arid rangeland regions. PLoS One. 2018;22;13(3):e0194319.
  8. Kordsardouei H, Barzegar M, Sahari MA. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil as two natural preservatives in cake. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2013;3(3):238-47.
  9. Fazeli MR, Amin G, Attari MMA, Ashtiani H, Jamalifar H, et al. Antimicrobial activities of Iranian sumac and avishan-e shirazi (Zataria multiflora) against some food-borne bacteria. Food Control, 2007; 18(6): 646-649.
  10. 10.Alavinezhad A, Hedayati M, Boskabady MH. The effect of Zataria multiflora and carvacrol on wheezing, FEV1 and plasma levels of nitrite in asthmatic patients. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2017;7(6): 531-41.
  11. 11.Molina-Salinas GM, Ramos-Guerra MC, Vargas-Villarreal J, Mata-Cardenas BD, Becerril-Montes P, et al. Bactericidal activity of organic extracts from Flourensia cernua DC against strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Archives of Medical Research. 2006;37:45-9.
  12. 12.Hosseinzadeh H, Hosseini A, Nassiri-Asl M, Sadeghnia HR. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007;7:1-23.
  13. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. 1996. Determination method of protein content in meat products (without using alcohol). 1st revision, ISIRI No. 924. [In Persian]
  14. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. 1996. Determination method of pH value in meat products (without using alcohol). 1st revision, ISIRI No. 1028. [In Persian]
  15. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. 2002. Meat and meat products - Determination of total fat content – Test method. 2nd Revision, ISIRI No. 742. [In Persian]
  16. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. 2003. Meat and meat products - Determination of total ash – Test method. 1st revision, ISIRI No. 744. [In Persian]
  17. Alam, M N, Bristi, N J, Rafiquzzaman MD. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2013;21:143-52.
  18. Pimental T, Cruz A, Deliza R. Sensory evaluation: sensory rating and scoring methods. The Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016;4:744-9.
  19. Emiroglu ZK, Yemis GP, Coskun BK, Candogan K. Antimicrobial activity of soy edible films incorporated with thyme and oregano essential oils on fresh ground beef patties. Meat Science. 2010;86:283–8.
  20. Mohamed HMH, Mansour H A. Incorporating essential oils of marjoram and rosemary in the formulation of beef patties manufactured with mechanically deboned poultry meat to improve the lipid stability and sensory attributes. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2012;45:79–87.
  21. Shon J, Eo J H, Choi Y H. Gelatin coating on quality attributes of sausage during refrigerated storage. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources. 2011;31:834-42.
  22. Uren A, Babayigit D. Color parameters of Turkish-type fermented sausage during fermentation and ripening. Meat Science. 1996;45(4):539-49.
  23. 23.Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernandez-Lopez J, Perez-Alvarez JA. Effect of adding citrus waste, thyme and oregano essential oil on the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of a bologna sausage. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2009;10:655-60.
  24. Faustman C, Sun Q, Mancini R, Suman SP. Myoglobin and lipid oxidation interactions: Mechanistic bases and control. Meat Science. 2010;86:86-94.
  25. Zhang X, Deyong L, Meng Q, He C, Ren L. Effect of mulberry leaf extracts on color, lipid oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative breakdown products of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Quality. 2016; 39:159-70.
  26. Fernandes VRT, Maria LRSF, Jane MGM, Vera LFS, Eliane G, et al. Yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) trim hamburger and sausage subjected to different smoking techniques. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2014;94(3):468-72.
  27. Murphy SC, Gilroy D, Kerry JF, Buckley DJ, Kerry J.P. Evaluation of surimi, fat and water content in a low/no added pork sausage formulation using response surface methodology. Meat Science. 2004; 66:689-701.
  28. Jo C, Jin SK, Ahn DU. Color changes in irradiated cooked pork sausage with different fat sources and packaging during storage. Meat Science. 2000;55:107-13.
  29. Akamittath JG, Brekke CJ, Schanus EG. Lipid oxidation and color stability in restructured meat systems during frozen storage. Journal of Food Science. 1990;55:1513-17.
  30. Barbut S. Effects of chemical acidification and microbial fermentation on the rheological properties of meat products. Meat Science. 2005;71(2):397-401.
  31. Rohlik B, Pipek P, Panek J. The effect of natural antioxidants on the color of dried/cooked sausages. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2010;28(4):249-57.
  32. Morrissey PA, Sheehy PJA, Galvin K, Kerry JP, Buckley DJ. Lipid stability in meat and meat products. Meat Science. 1998; 49:73-86.
  33. Campagnol PCB, Fries  LLM, Terra  NN, Santos BA, Furtado A S. Salame elaborado com Lactobacillus plantarum fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suino. Ciencia Tecnode Alimentos, 2007;27(4):883-9.
  34. Mc Carthy TL, Kerry JP, Kerry JF, Lynch PB, Buckley DJ. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of natural food and plant extracts in fresh and previously frozen pork patties. Meat Science. 2000;57:177-84.
  35. Lynch MP, Faustman C. Effect of aldehyde lipid oxidation products on myoglobin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000;48(3):600-4.
  36. Nunez de Gonzalez MT, Hafley BS, Boleman RM, Miller RK, Rhee KS, et al. Antioxidant properties of plum concentrates and powder in precooked roast beef to reduce lipid oxidation. Meat Science. 2008;80(4):997-1004.
  37. Khaleghi A. Kasaai R, Khosravi-Darani K, Rezaei K. Combined use of black barberry (Berberis crataegina L.) extract and nitrite in cooked beef sausages during the refrigerated storage. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2016;18:601-14.
  38. Kennedy C, Buckley DJ, Kerry JP. Influence of different gas compositions on the short-term storage stability of mother-packaged retail-ready lamb packs. Meat Science. 2005;69(1):27-33.
  39. Kerry JP, O’Sullivan MG, Buckley DJ, Lynch PB, Morrissey PA. The effects of dietary 𝛼-tocopheryl acetate supplementation and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of lamb patties. Meat Science. 2000;56(1):61-6.
  40. Ismail H A, Lee E J, Ko K Y, Ahn D U. Effects of aging time and natural antioxidants on the color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef. Meat Science. 2008;80:582-91.
  41. Nam K C, Ahn D U. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on the color of irradiated ground beef. Journal of Food Science. 2003;68:1686-90.
  42. Hunt M C, Sorheim O, Slinde E. Color and heat denaturation of myoglobin forms in ground beef. Journal of Food Science.1999;64:847-51.
  43. Schmidt G R. Processing and fabrication. Muscle as food. (Academic Press, New York, USA),1986;201-39.
  44. Young SL, Sarda X, Rosenberg M. Micro-encapsulating properties of whey proteins. 1. Micro-encapsulation of anhydrous milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science. 2004;76:2868–77.
  45. Lauritzsen K, Martinsen G. Copper induced lipid oxidation during salting of cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Food Lipids. 1999;6:299-315.
  46. Yu LL, Scanlin  L, Wilson J, Schimdt, G. Rosemary extracts as inhibitors of lipid oxidation and color change in cooked turkey products during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Science, 2006;67(2):582-585.
  47. Demeyer DI, Verplaetse A, Gistelinck M. Fermentation of meat: an integrated process. Food Chemistry, Biology and Nutrition. 986;41(1):131-40.
  48. Jin Z, Li Y, Ren R, Qin N. Yield, nutritional content, and antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus on corncobs supplemented with herb residues. Microbiology. 2018;46:24-32.
  49. Rather S A, Masoodi  F A, Akhter  R, Rather  J A, Shiekh  K A. Advances in use of natural antioxidants as food additives for improving the oxidative stability. Madridge Journal of Food Technology. 2016;1:10-7.
  50. Coutinho de Oliveira T L, de Carvalho S M, de AraujoSoares R, Andrade M A, das Gracas Cardoso, M, et al. Antioxidant effects of Satureja montana L. essential oil on TBARS and color of mortadella-type sausages formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2012;45:204–12.
  51. Abed N E, Kaabi B, Smaali M I, Chabbouh M, Habibi K, Mejri M, et al. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Thymus capitata essential oil with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;1-11.
  52. Liu JR, Yang YC, Shi LS, Peng CC. Antioxidant properties of royal jelly associated with larval age and time of harvest. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56:11447-52.
  53. Sebranek JG, Sewalt VJH, Robbins KL, Houser TA. Comparison of natural rosemary extract and BHA/BHT for relative antioxidant effectiveness in pork sausage. Meat Science. 2005;69:289-96.
  54. Karpinska M, Borowski J, Danowska-Oziewicz M. The use of natural antioxidants in ready-to-serve food. Food Chemistry. 2001;72:5-9.
  55. Simitzis PE, Deligeorgis SG, Bizelis JA, Dardamani A, Theo-dosiou I, et al. Effect of dietary oregano oil supplementation on lamb meat characteristics. Meat Science. 2008;79:217-33.
  56. Sharififar F, Moshafi MH, Mansouri SH, Khodashenas M, Khoshnoodi M. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of endemic Zataria multiflora boiss. Food Control. 2007;18:800-5.
  57. Jamwal A, Kumar S, Bhat ZF, Kaur S. The quality and storage stability of chicken patties prepared with different additives. Nutrition & Food Science. 2015;45 (5):728-39.
  58. Nath PM, Kumar V, Praveen PK, Ganguly S. A comparative study of green tea extract and rosemary extract on quality characteristics of chevon patties. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 2016; 5(3):1680-1688.
  59. Indumathi J, Obula Reddy B. Effect of different natural antioxidant extracts on the shelf life of functional chicken meat nuggets. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015;3(6):820-8.