Document Type : Review Article
Department of Nutrition, Electronic Health and Statistics Surveillance Research Center, Science and Research Branch. Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Colorectal cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer that results from abnormalities or changes in the genome and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Carnitine is a potent antioxidant that may result in an increase in cellular respiration, apoptosis, a reduction in proliferation and inflammation of tumor cells by various mechanisms. The present study was conducted to summarize the effects of carnitine on the treatment or prevention of colorectal cancer. The review was conducted with the following words "L-carnitine" in combination with colorectal cancer, neoplasm, colon, rectum, apoptosis, inflammation and precancerous lesions among animal and in vitro studies. From six interventional studies investigated in this article, one of them was performed on two groups of mice having precancerous lesions and macroscopic colonic tumors divided into AOM and APC groups and five other studies on adenocarcinoma cell lines of NCOL-1, Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480. One of them also was performed on DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis mouse model. These studies reported significant increment in the amount of the fatty acid transportation into the mitochondria; generation of mitochondrial superoxide anions (O2-), apoptosis and cell death in cells which were exposed by L-carnitine. An increment was also observed in pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase, Bak and Bax and reduction in anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xl. In these studies, cellular inflammation which was associated with products of the cyclooxygenase enzyme pathway, and cancer cell proliferation was reduced as well and there was an increment in DNA fragmentation. The aberrant crypt foci development and pre-cancerous lesions were significantly inhibited by carnitine in the colons of the studied mice but did not exert protective effects on their intestinal tumors. L-carnitine may have potential anticancer effects and inhibits the progression of macroscopic and pre-cancerous tumors and prevents the growth and proliferation of cancerous cells.
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